Spot the Signs. The most obvious sign that you'll receive this reaction is if you haven't had a healthy relationship with your manager in the past. Maybe you continually challenged his ideas, and he took that as a sign of disrespect. Or, maybe she always made unreasonable demands, and you were never able to see eye_to_eye on your to_do list. Or perhaps his moods were completely unpredictable. In any case, if your relationship has been strained, you may receive a less_than_ideal response to your two weeks' notice.
A Professional Greeting. Your letter should be addressed to your boss. There's a good chance that this letter will merely end up in a file in HR, but it starts with your boss. Assuming this is someone with whom you work reasonably close with on a daily basis, it doesn't have to be super stiff and formal. Specific and professional is the right tone here.