A Professional Greeting. Your letter should be addressed to your boss. There's a good chance that this letter will merely end up in a file in HR, but it starts with your boss. Assuming this is someone with whom you work reasonably close with on a daily basis, it doesn't have to be super stiff and formal. Specific and professional is the right tone here.
Asking You to Stay Beyond Your Notice. In this situation, you won't necessarily get the promise of more money or a better title__but your manager will ask you, perhaps as a personal favor, to stay a few additional weeks or months until the company is able to hire and train a replacement.