Asking You to Stay Beyond Your Notice. In this situation, you won't necessarily get the promise of more money or a better title__but your manager will ask you, perhaps as a personal favor, to stay a few additional weeks or months until the company is able to hire and train a replacement.
A Professional Greeting. Your letter should be addressed to your boss. There's a good chance that this letter will merely end up in a file in HR, but it starts with your boss. Assuming this is someone with whom you work reasonably close with on a daily basis, it doesn't have to be super stiff and formal. Specific and professional is the right tone here.