Spot the Signs. Do you have a good relationship with your manager? Is he or she relatively reasonable? Do you have regular one_on_ones where you talk about your career goals and growth? If so, it's likely that your boss will accept your resignation with grace, help develop a plan of action for your last two weeks, and maybe even attend your farewell happy hour.
Otherwise, look to the history of your company. How have your boss and other managers handled employees' resignations? If you see a pattern of upper management refusing to let the team members work out their notice, you can likely expect the same.