Your End Date. The most crucial detail in a resignation letter is your end date. Legally and according to your company's policy, you might be required to give a minimum amount of notice (two weeks, or possibly more, depending on the company and the role). If that's the case, you don't want there to be any confusion about how much notice you give. If it's right there in writing in a letter dated two weeks before your last day, you're saving yourself the hassle.
Also think about your relationship with your manager. Would he or she have reason to think that you'll waste your last two weeks or distract your co_workers instead of doing what you can to make the transition seamless? If so, you may be asked to cut your two weeks short.