Your End Date. The most crucial detail in a resignation letter is your end date. Legally and according to your company's policy, you might be required to give a minimum amount of notice (two weeks, or possibly more, depending on the company and the role). If that's the case, you don't want there to be any confusion about how much notice you give. If it's right there in writing in a letter dated two weeks before your last day, you're saving yourself the hassle.
If You Want to Do More Than Just the Basics with Your Resignation Letter. You can always write more, and craft a longer resignation letter, but the truth is that it isn't necessary. You can add a portion of the note where you thank your manager or boss for the opportunities and time you have had together, or add that you hope to keep in touch, but in reality, if you really feel this way you probably should make an effort and find an opportunity to say these things in person (rather than getting an email).