Basic of a Resignation Letter. There's no need to sugarcoat or get creative in the beginning; just state the position you're resigning from and the effective date. While you probably shared with your boss your reasons for leaving, you don't need to describe them here__keeping it simple is perfectly fine.
What Else Should I Do When Resigning? First, out of respect and common courtesy, you would ideally tell your manager in person that you are resigning. If you can't wait for that or work remotely or some other complication prevents that, the telephone is the next best option. You can choose to follow up or accompany that discussion with a formal letter of resignation afterwards, but it would be a rare workplace that would require that formality.