Spot the Signs. Do you have a good relationship with your manager? Is he or she relatively reasonable? Do you have regular one_on_ones where you talk about your career goals and growth? If so, it's likely that your boss will accept your resignation with grace, help develop a plan of action for your last two weeks, and maybe even attend your farewell happy hour.
However, at most companies, there's no formal requirement that you do so. Most employment in the United States is called "at will", which means that your current employer can fire you at any time and for any reason (except those that are prohibited under law).