Your End Date. The most crucial detail in a resignation letter is your end date. Legally and according to your company's policy, you might be required to give a minimum amount of notice (two weeks, or possibly more, depending on the company and the role). If that's the case, you don't want there to be any confusion about how much notice you give. If it's right there in writing in a letter dated two weeks before your last day, you're saving yourself the hassle.
Even if you're not close with your boss, chances are you have a working, first_name_basis relationship. Maintaining that in your official letter is okay. You don't need to keep a Victorian level of formality here__just make sure it's a professional tone.