And sure, this could be an email (all of the same principles would apply), but a letter makes things official in every sense. It also gives you a prop to take along to the face_to_face meeting with your boss, when you let him or her know that you're leaving.
You want your intent to be as direct as possible. You are leaving, plain and simple. There's no need to mention where you're going. You can discuss that with your boss (though you're not obligated to do so) and your colleagues if you want, but there's little purpose for including that in your resignation letter. That's especially true if you're moving over to a competitor__you don't want to create ill will in this letter or cause any drama.