Otherwise, look to the history of your company. How have your boss and other managers handled employees' resignations? If you see a pattern of upper management refusing to let the team members work out their notice, you can likely expect the same.
A resignation letter can also help your boss and your company start the transition process, get a replacement for you approved, and start planning internally, etc. The paper trail is beneficial all around. So what should go into your letter? Let's look at some examples of what to do (and perhaps more importantly, what not to do).