Your End Date. The most crucial detail in a resignation letter is your end date. Legally and according to your company's policy, you might be required to give a minimum amount of notice (two weeks, or possibly more, depending on the company and the role). If that's the case, you don't want there to be any confusion about how much notice you give. If it's right there in writing in a letter dated two weeks before your last day, you're saving yourself the hassle.
It also starts the clock for your boss and your company, kicking off the transition plan of training, hiring, and otherwise covering your impending departure. The bad examples here are all too vague. With the last one, you're aligning yourself with company policy, which is good, but it still doesn't tell the reader how much notice that actually is. Be as specific as possible on the time you have between now and your last day.